PIMRIS Regional Repositry
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View the PDF document Breeding season of the Tongan shellfish 3. Elongated giant clam (kukukuku), Tridacna maxima (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 3, 1995)
Author(s): Manu, N., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 25-33
ASFA Keywords: Clam fisheries, Breeding, Breeding seasons
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: Monthly samples of T. maxima were taken at Vuna Wharf fish market in Tongatapu Island from April 1992 to March 1993. T. maxima at 40-59mm SL were all male. The ratio of hermaphrodite shells grandually increased from 60mm SL to 140mm SL at which size all shells became hermaphrodite.

View the PDF document Breeding season of the Tongan shellfish. 4. Turbans ('Elili), Turbo spp. (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 6, 1996)
Author(s): Manu, N., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 1-8
ASFA Keywords: Shellfish fishery, Breeding seasons, Fishery development
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: Monthly samples of Turbo setosus were taken in the Tongatapu island group from April 1992 to March 1993. The maximum gonad index was observed in April 1992, however, another three peaks also appeared with 3 - 4 months intervals. Spawning of T. setosus seems to occur throughout the year in Tonga.

View the PDF document Breeding season of Tongan shellfish. 1. Venus clam (To'o), Gafrarium spp. (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 1, 1994)
Author(s): Sone, S.
Publisher: Tonga Ministry of Fisheries
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 13-19
ASFA Keywords: Shellfish fisheries, Breeding seasons
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: Monthly samples of venus clams, Gafrarium pectinatum and G. tumidum, were taken at Vuna fish market in Nuku'alofa throughout the year. Examination of gonadal maturation condition of the samples showed that the spawning of G. pectinatum occurs throughout the year while that of G. tumidum occurs only in summer months from November to March.

View the PDF document Breeding season of Tongan shellfish. 2. Ark clams (Kaloa'a), Anadara spp. (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 2, 1994)
Author(s): Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 19-26
ASFA Keywords: Breeding seasons, Shellfish fisheries, Mollusc fisheries
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: By examination of sex ratio of A. antiquata and A. maculosa of various size groups, it has been shown that the former species performs sex inversion from male to female at the size range between 45mm and 60mm in shell length. The latter species does not seem to perform such sex inversion.

View the PDF document Breeding season of Tongan shellfish. 5. Short-spine sea urchin (Tukumisi), Tripneustes gratilla (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 6, 1996)
Author(s): Loto'ahea, T., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 9-14
ASFA Keywords: Echinoderm fisheries, Breeding, Fishery development
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: Monthly samples of the short-spine sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, were taken at Vuna fish market in Nukualofa from January to November 1995. The average gonad index of each sample was determined and the seasonal trend was found to follow the seasonal change of sea water temperature with the exception of February and May.

View the PDF document Giant clam marketing in Tonga (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 5, 1996)
Author(s): Fa'anunu, 'U., Loto'ahea, T., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 69-75
ASFA Keywords: Clam fisheries, Clam culture, Market research, Marketing
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: In order to support the giant clam stock enhancement program in Tonga, and to earn foreign currency, several markets for the cultured giant clams were investigated. Only the aquarium market was found suitable for the current production level and growth rate of the clams.

View the PDF document Marketing trial of cultured giant clam, Tridacna gigas, in Tonga (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 4, 1995)
Author(s): Fa'anunu, 'U., Paongo, 'O., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 7-13
ASFA Keywords: Clam fisheries, Clam culture, Marketing
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: A marketing trial of the cultured giant clam, Tridacna gigas, was carried out in October 1994. The clams were sold at T$1.00 - T$4.00 per piece depending on their size. All the clams on sale were 4-year old and still immature with no development of gonads.

View the PDF document Ocean culture of giant clam in Tonga: An aspect of managing giant clam resources (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 4, 1995)
Author(s): Loto'ahea, T., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 25-30
ASFA Keywords: Clam fisheries, Clam culture, Fishery management
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: A series of surveys were conducted to ascertain the present situation of giant clam resources in Tonga. Tridacna derasa was found to be the most exploited species. In order to enhance the T. derasa resource, the ministry's hatchery is producing annually 50,000 seed clams for future release.

View the PDF document Present status of giant clam culture in Tonga (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 5, 1996)
Author(s): Loto'ahea, T., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 59-68
ASFA Keywords: Clam culture, Clam fisheries, Stock assessment, Fishery management
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: In recent years, giant clam culture methods have been improved in Tonga as well as in many other countries. The appropriate number of giant clam productinos in the hatchery were sought with the aim of enhancing the giant clam resources in the wild.

View the PDF document Results of the field surveys on giant clam stock in the Tongatapu Island group (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 3, 1995)
Author(s): Tu'avao, T., Loto'ahea, T., Udagawa, K., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 1-10
ASFA Keywords: Clam fisheries, Surveys, Fishery data, Fisheries development, Stock assessment
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: A series of surveys was conducted on the giant clam stocks in the Tongatapu Island group by the towing, free swimming, transect line and scuba diving methods. The density of T. maxima was high at Ha'atafu and Hakauiki Reef. The giant clam stock seems to have greatly decreased around Hakau Mamao Reef since 1979.

View the PDF document Transport of live green snails, Turbo marmoratus, from Vanuatu to Tonga (In Fisheries Research Bulletin of Tonga, Volume 1, 1994)
Author(s): Fa'anunu, U., Sone, S.
Publisher: Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga
Place: Nuku'alofa (Tonga)
Notes: pp. 7-11
ASFA Keywords: Gastropod fisheries, Breeding, Fisheries development
Country Collection: Tonga
Abstract: Fifty live green snails, Turbo marmoratus, were successfully transported from Vanuatu to Tonga. The average body weight of the green snails was 2kg. The green snails were packed in plastic containers with paper towels wetted by seawater which contained streptomycin sulfate at 50 ppm in concentration. Transportation time was seventeen hours and twenty minutes.

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